Footnotes On History of Samoa Recorded By Historians: 1800/1900’s


In 1810 the most powerful chief was Tamafaiga of Manono who gave himself the title as ‘Tupu o Salafai’. According to this tradition the only person to hold the Tafa’ifa since Queen Salamasina was Fonoti who was known as Fonoti the King! (Malama Meleisea).

On August 18, 1830, John Williams and his party “observed from the east a bay [Safune] which appeared well sheltered from the east wind….A great number of canoes came off to whom Faauea the Samoas Chief spoke. The people recognised him immediately and addressed him as their Etu Chief.” (Probably aitu, believing that he was dead because of his long absence from Samoa). Fa’auea told the Samoans that the Olive Branch was a “pahilotu” (praying ship), and the Christian converts on Tongatapu, Ha’apai, Rarotonga and Tahiti were “all much better since they embraced Christianity.” (1a. Moyle 1984: 67-68)

On August 20, 1830, John Williams and his fellow missionaries approached Apolima, and secured the services of “a European called John Wright,” who “came to offer himself as our Interpreter in which capacity we were glad to accept him.” On this occasion, Williams recorded the recent assassination of the reputed cannibal chief Lei’ataua Tonumaipe’a Tamafaiga “about 15 days before our arrival,” speculating that “It is thought he would have used all his influence to oppose our object he himself being almost the object of adoration but he was removed.” (1a. Moyle 1984: 69)

On August 23, 1830, LMS missionary John Williams and his colleagues visited “the principal chief Malietoa [Vai’inupo, at Sapapali’i, Savai’i] with the present we had brought for him.” (Axes, hammers, chisels, cloth, beads and a large quantity of LMS publications). In return, Malietoa brought the missionaries “a present of mats and native cloth. The chief held one end of the cloth and mats in his hands leaving the other to drag after him in the form of a train which an elderly female bore slightly off the ground. The chief came in twice in the above mentioned manner and presented the mats and cloth to us rather in a stately and graceful manner.” After Malietoa was seated, Williams, using John Wright as an interpreter, explained the purpose of his visit, which was not to take any of his property, but rather, to teach him “and his people the knowledge of the true God.” (1a. Moyle 1984: 73)

On May 3, 1841, Malietoa Vai’inupo (”Tavita”), the first tama ‘aiga chief to accept Christianity, died in Western Samoa. (1e. Theroux 1985)

On February 25, 1868, Malietoa Laupepa was proclaimed King of Samoa. The French reported that the proclamation was inspired by Consul J.C. Williams. (1a. Morrell 1960: 213)

On April 9, 1872, the “chiefs and rulers of Samoa” signed a petition addressed to United States President Ulysses S. Grant “praying for the annexation of Samoa to the United States.” (1a. Morrell 1960: 214)

On January 14, 1876, the “Three Consuls” (of England, Germany and the United States) issued a proclamation withdrawing foreign subjects from the jurisdiction of the Samoan government. (1a. Morrell 1960: 218)

On February 7, 1876, Malietoa Laupepa, appointed as “King of Samoa” by the Three Consuls and held aboard HMS Barracouta, was persuaded to sign a letter requesting the arrest of Samoa’s “Premier” Albert Barnes Steinberger as “a liar and an impostor.” (1a. Morrell 1960: 218)

On September 2, 1879, a municipal convention was held in Apia between Malietoa Laupepa and the “Three Consuls” (of Britain, Germany and the United States). Under the terms of this agreement, “the Samoan Government gave up all jurisdiction over the town, harbour and neighbourhood of Apia. A Municipal Board was created, consisting of the Three Consuls and one nominee of each, with rating powers and a magistrate to enforce its regulations and redress complaints. One of its first regulations forbade the sale of liquor to a Pacific islander.” (1a. Morrell 1960: 223)

On October 17, 1879, The Apia town and district were formed into a municipality on the advise of Sir Arthur Gordon when he called here some months earlier. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On December 23, 1879, German warships saluted Malietoa Talavou and the new Samoan flag, which was red with a white cross and a white star in the upper left quadrant. (1e. Theroux 1985)

On March 12, 1880, Malietoa Talavou was declared “King of Samoa” and his nephew, Malietoa Laupepa was declared “Vice King,” to succeed his uncle on his death, by the Three Consuls (Britain, Germany and the United States). (1a. Bryan 1927: 27)

On March 24, 1880, in Apia, an agreement was entered into by “King” Malietoa Talavou, the Government of Samoa and the “Three Consuls” (Britain, Germany and the United States) whereby the Consuls agreed to support the King, and to provide an Executive Council for him. The members of the council were Thomas Trood, English, Minister of Finance; Alfred Volkmann, German, Minister of Public Works and Jonas M. Coe, American, Minister of Justice. (Jonas Coe was the father of Emma Eliza Coe, the legendary “Queen Emma”). (1d. Bryan 1927: 27)

On March 10, 1881, Malietoa Laupepa was crowned “King of Samoa” by the “Three Consuls” (Britain, Germany and the United States). (1d. Bryan 1927: 27)

On March 19, 1881, Malietoa Laupepa, nephew of the recently deceased Talavou, was declared “King of Samoa” by the “Three Consuls” (Britain, Germany and the United States). Tupua Tamasese Lealofi I and Mata’afa Iosefo opposed the declaration. (1d. Bryan 1927: 27)

On April 21, 1881, Tupua Tamasese Lealofi I, Mata’afa Iosefo and other disaffected chiefs met at Leulumoega, ‘Upolu. Tamasese was declared “King” of Atua and A’ana districts, to hold office for two years, and then to be succeeded by Mata’afa. (1d. Bryan 1927: 27)

On July 12, 1881, the “Lackawanna Agreement,” mediated by Captain J.H. Gillis of the U.S. Navy, commanding USS Lackawanna, was signed in Western Samoa, dividing kingly honors between “King” Malietoa Laupepa and “Vice King” Tui A’ana Tupua Tamasese Titimaea. (1a. Gray 1960: 68-69)

On January 23, 1885, Doctor C. Stuebel, the German Consul in Samoa, raised the German flag at Mulinu’u, ‘Upolu, as a “public manifestation” of the taking possession “as security, of all the land which now constitutes all the municipality of Apia.” (This was supposed to be a reprisal for the alleged wrongs committed against Germany by the Samoan Government). (1d. Bryan 1927: 29)

On December 31, 1885, in Apia, the German Consul in Apia, Dr. C. Stuebel, hauled Malietoa Laupepa’s flag down, explaining that Malietoa had no jurisdiction over the municipal zone. (1a. Gilson 1970: 379, 381)

On August 27, 1887, German warships distributed declarations of Tui A’ana Tupua Tamasese Titimaea’s war on Malietoa Laupepa (which lasted until September 1, 1887. (1a. Gray 1960: 78)

On September 15, 1887, Captain Eugen Brandeis, a German officer, forced Malietoa Laupepa and other chiefs to sign a document declaring Tui A’ana Tupua Tamasese Titimaea as “King of Samoa.” (1a. Gray 1960: 78-79)

On September 17, 1887, Malietoa Laupepa surrendered to German Captain Eugen Brandeis, was taken aboard SMS Bismarck, and was sent into exile aboard SMS Adler, first to the Cameroons, then to Germany, and finally to Jaluit in the Marshall Islands. “He was accompanied by his brother Moti, Maisake and Alualu (a half-caste German interpreter).” (1d. Bryan 1927: 32)

On September 5, 1888, the German warship SMS Adler (”Eagle”) shelled Manono and Apolima, which were strongholds of Malietoa’s forces. (1a. Gray 1960: 83)

On March 23, 1889, Malietoa Tanumafili I was installed as “King of Samoa” by the “Three Consuls.” (1a. Gray 1960: 99)

On June 14, 1889, the Berlin General Act proclaimed the “independence and neutrality of the Samoan Islands” and provided for the recognition of Malietoa Laupepa as “King.” Another aim of this Act was to avoid all occasions of dissensions between their respective and the people of Samoa while at the same time promoting as far as possible the peaceful and orderly civilization of the people. (1a. Kennedy 1974: 96-98; 1d. Coleman 1959: 7)

On August 11, 1889, Malietoa Laupepa returned from his exile in the Marshall Islands, aboard a German gunboat, and was set adrift. He was met by Mata’afa Iosefo, in favor of whom he subsequently abdicated his “kingship.” (1d. Bryan 1927: 34)

On July 13, 1893, Mata’afa Iosefo was captured on Savai’i, having fled there from Manono during yet another of Samoa’s European-inspired 19th century civil wars. (1a. Gray 1960: 97)

On July 26, 1893, he was deported to Jaluit in the Marshall Islands, along with his daughter and 11 others. (1a. Gray 1960: 97)

On December 5, 1894, the Samoan Land Claims Commission held its last meeting, awarding 75,000 acres to German claimants, 36,000 to English petitioners, and 21,000 to American hopefuls. (1a. Gilson 1970: 411; 1a. Gray 1960: 97-98)

On November 15, 1898, after a great fono in Mulinu’u, Mata’afa Iosefo was declared “King.” This news was relayed to the Three Consuls and the Chief Justice. The Germans supported his claim, but Malietoa Tanumafili I and Tui A’ana Tupua Tamasese Lealofi I denied the legality of the election. Chief Justice William Lea Chambers agreed with them, and civil war once again erupted. (1a. Gilson 1970: 426-427).

On December 31, 1898, in accordance with the provisions of the Berlin General Act, the Chief Justice of Samoa ruled that Malietoa Tanumafili I would be “King,” as the three claimants (Malietoa, Tui A’ana Tupua Tamasese Lealofi I and Mata’afa Iosefo) could not agree among themselves as to who should be “King.” Once again, civil war broke out. (1d. Bryan 1927: 40)

On January 4, 1899, The Three Consuls (of England, Germany and the United States) recognized Mataafa Iosefos government in Apia. (1e. Theroux 1985)

On March 31, 1899, Mata’afa Iosefo’s forces defeated Malietoa Tanumafilis army in yet another phase of Samoa’s ongoing, European-inspired civil war. (1a. Gray 1960: 101)

On February 16, 1900, the Berlin Agreement was ratified by the United States Senate. Under the terms of the treaty, the eastern Samoan islands (Tutuila, Aunu’u and Manu’a) became a U.S. Territory. Germany gained control of ‘Upolu, Savai’i and the other western isles, and in return gave up her interests in Tonga and the Solomon Islands. Britain relinquished her claims in Samoa, colonized the Solomon Islands and retained a sphere of influence in Tonga. (1d. Bryan 1927: 43)

On March 1, 1900, Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf, newly appointed as Imperial Governor of German Samoa (called Deutsch Samoa or simply Samoa by the Germans), raised the flag at Mulinuu, Apia in the presence of a great audience. The Kaisers proclamation, read at the ceremony, stated: We hereby, in the name of the Empire, take these islands under our Imperial protection. The Governor declared the islands to be German territory, and hoisted the Imperial flag of the Consulate to the strains of Heil Kaiser, Dir, [‘Hail to you, Emperor’] and a national salute from H.I.G.M.S. [His Imperial German Majesty’s Ship] Cormoran and the U.S.S. Abarenda, Commander B.F. Tilley, United States Navy, Commanding. Governor Solf visited Abarenda the next day and was saluted with 13 guns. (1d. Bryan 1927: 43; 1a. Field 1984: 26)

On March 9, 1900, Mata’afa Iosefo thanked the German Emperor (Kaiser Wilhelm II) for taking possession of the western Samoan islands, and expressed his wish that the German colonial laws would be made “in conformity to the rules and customs of the Samoans.” (1a. Hempenstall 1978: 33)

On February 17, 1901, Hon Fonoti Mata’utia Ioane Brown of Lalovaea and Lotofaga Atua the Sa-Fonoti the King line, was born at Lotofaga Atua in Western Samoa. (J.B. Fonoti family: Sa-Fonoti) – Info in full

On September 16, 1901, Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf, Governor of German Samoa, issued a proclamation which forbade the Samoan custom of fa’atafea (banishment of wrong doers). The proclamation closed with this statement: “This is my word; everyone must obey it.” (1b. Theroux 1983b: 55)

On February 18, 1903, German Samoa’s Governor, Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf, proclaimed the establishment of a Land and Titles Commission. (1a. Davidson 1967: 81)

In 1905, The case for Malietoa asserted that he held the four papa titles and was tafa’ifa, Lauaki Namalauulu Mamoe of Safotulafai in Savaii, asserted that Malietoa had no such recognition. He claimed that Malietoa held none of the titles, not even that of Malietoa, since none had been bestowed by Samoan custom. In this contention Lauaki was supported by the Orators of Malie and Manono. (Malama meleisea).

In 1909, Lauaki Namalau’ulu Mamoe of Safotulafai and other chiefs aboard the German warship taking them to exile in Saipan. (Malama Meleisea).

On January 21, 1909, The orator Lauaki Namulaulu of Safotulafai, leader of the Pule Party, arrived at Vaiusu, accompanied by a large party of armed men in 25 fautasis. He had been summoned by the German Governor Solf for interrogation concerning his petition for self-government by the Samoans, and the newly, by the Germans created title of Ali’i Sili. The Governor, accompanied by Mata’afa, went to Vaiusu and persuaded Lauaki to return to Savaii with all his people, which Lauaki did. He also managed to pacify the Tumua fiction who took umbrage at Lauaki’s discreet and challenging action in landing a large party of armed men at Vaiusu. Solf could not let Lauaki get away with this defying act, and telegraphed for the assistance of German warships at the time in the South Pacific. These ships arrived 2 months later, and Lauaki and 9 of his adherents and their families were deported to Saipan. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On February 6, 1912, Paramount Chief and Mau leader Mata’afa Iosefo, a leading figure in Samoan civil wars of the late nineteenth century, and oft-crowned (by the Three Consuls) “King of Samoa,” died and was buried at Mulinuu, Apia. (1a. Davidson 1967: 88)

On June 21, 1913, Following the decree from the German Emperor that the Governor may select one member of the Tupua family and one member of the Malietoa family to be his trusted friends and advisers, Tupua Tamasese and Malietoa Tanumafili (i) were sworn in as Fautua. Their remuneration was 2000 Deutschmark per year. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

In 1913, one of the changes was the All Samoa Fa’alupega from King Fonoti: – Tulouna a Tumua ma Pule, Tulouna a Itu’au ma Alataua, Tulouna a Aiga-i-le-Tai, Ma le Va’a-o-Fonoti. Translation: Respect to Tumua and Pule, Respect to Itu’au and Alataua, Respect to Aiga I le Tai, And the Crew/Ship of Fonoti. (Since 1600AD)

To the new Fa’alupega of German Samoa required for Malietoa Tanunafili and Tupua Tamasese to be sworn on oath and change this Samoas historical Fa’alupega to the new fa’alupega as follows: – Tulouna a lana Maiesitete le Kaisa o le Tupu mamalu o lo tatou Malo Kasialika Aoao, Tulouna a lana afioga le Kovana Kasialika o le sui o le Kaisa i Samoa nei, Susu mai Malietoa, Afio mai Tupua, Ua fa’amanatuaina ai aiga e lua i o oulua tofiga Kasialika o le Fautua, Tulouna a le vasega a Faipule Kasialika o e lagolago malosi i le Malo, Afifio mai le nofo a vasega o tofiga Kasialika o e ua fita i le tautua i le Malo. Translation: Respect to his Majesty the Kaiser, the most dignified King of our imperial Government. Respect to his honour the Imperial Governor, the Kaiser’s representative in Samoa, Welcome to Malietoa and Tupua, who represent the two families in your positions as advisers to the Imperial government, Respect to the Faipule Kaisalika who are strong supporters of the government, Welcome to the various officials who have served the imperial government faithfully. (Malama Meleisea)

On September 1, 1914, Western Samoa’s Administrator, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Logan, informed an assembly of Samoans that his government, for the time being, would be similar to the one established by the Germans. (1a. Davidson 1967: 91)

On November 14, 1915, Lauaki Namulau’ulu Mamoe, one of the leading orators of his time and a leader of the Mau a Pule, died on Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. He was en route to Samoa from Saipan in the Mariana Islands, whence he had been exiled by the Germans. (1a. Davidson 1970: 298)

On June 21, 1919, The Secretary of Native Affairs published figures of the number of victims of the flu epidemic: Before 38, 178 people, After 30, 636 people, 7,542 died. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On May 1, 1920, New Zealand’s civil administration of Western Samoa began, under the authority of two bills passed by the New Zealand Parliament. The first bill provided for the establishment of a Department of External Affairs. The second empowered the government to establish a civil administration in Western Samoa. Under this authority, a Samoa Constitution Order was created. (1a. Field 1984: 53)

On December 17, 1920, the Council of the League of Nations confirmed and defined “A Mandate conferred upon and accepted by His Britannic Majesty for and on behalf of the Dominion of New Zealand to administer German Samoa.” Thus, King George V, as King of the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth, became King of Western Samoa. (1a. Davidson 1967: 101; 1a. Field 1984: 54; 1a. Rowe 1930: 96)

On July 23, 1927, in the New Zealand Parliament, the second reading of the Samoa Amendment Bill was concluded. In reference to the bill, Prime Minister Gordon Coates said that “the Samoans are a backward people” with a weakness for politics, and were “susceptible to agitation and rumor.” (1a. Field 1984: 99)

On December 6, 1928, Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III, a leader of Western Samoa’s Mau, was found guilty of a summons relating to the non-payment of a poll tax in 1927, and was sentenced to six weeks in jail. He was also found guilty of resisting arrest, and was sentenced to a six-month jail term in New Zealand. (Field 1984: 131-132)

On March 3, 1930, the leaders of the Mau met with Western Samoa’s Administrator, Colonel Stephen Shepard Allen, New Zealand’s Defense Minister, Mr. John Cobbe, and other officials in the guest house of Tupua Tamasese Mea’ole in Vaimoso. Also in attendance were Malietoa Tanumafili I, Mata’afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinu’u I and Tuimaleali’ifano Siu (whose sons would play prominent roles in Western Samoa’s future). The meeting was lengthy; nothing was accomplished, and tensions increased. (1a. Field 1984: 183-185)

On March 4, 1930, a second meeting of Mau leaders with New Zealand’s Defense Minister John Cobbe and Western Samoa’s Administrator, Colonel Stephen Allen, ended in failure. (1a. Field 1984: 184-186)

On March 7, 1930, the final meeting between Western Samoa’s Administrator, Colonel Stephen Allen, New Zealand’s Defense Minister, Mr. John Cobbe and Mau leaders Malietoa Tanumafili I, Tupua Tamasese Mea’ole, Mata’afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinu’u I and Tuimaleali’ifano Siu was held in Vaimoso. The Mau leaders presented a letter which contained a list of questions regarding the status of their petition to the League of Nations, and their dissatisfaction with Judge Luxford’s verdict regarding the murder of Paramount Chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III on “Black Saturday” (December 29, 1929). (1a. Field 1984: 188-189)

On April 21, 1931, Western Samoa’s Chief Judge, John Luxford, found O.F. Nelson & Co., Ltd. guilty of 28 charges of “aiding and abetting” the Mau. He levied a fine of £200 for each charge, for a total of £5,600, and added this comment: “I know of nothing more deserving of censure and condemnation than actions of a European [i.e. afakasi] or European corporation deliberately encouraging members of a somewhat unsophisticated native race to break the law.” (The fine was later reduced by the New Zealand Supreme Court). (1a. Field 1984: 199-200)

On March 3, 1933, Western Samoas Chief Judge, John Luxford, found Mau leader O.F. Nelson guilty of sedition, and sentenced him to eight months in jail and ten years in exile. He was immediately taken to Vaimea Jail. (1a. Field 1984: 210)

On March 4, 1933, Mau leader Olaf Frederick Nelson was put aboard the ship Maui Pomare en route to imprisonment and exile in New Zealand. (1a. Field 1984: 210)

On March 19, 1934, banished Western Samoan Mau leader Olaf Frederick Nelson arrived in Lyttelton, New Zealand, aboard the Maui Pomare. He was taken to Paparua Prison, near Christchurch, and lodged an appeal to the New Zealand Supreme Court from there. (1a. Field 1984: 211)

In 1935, Hon Fonoti Mata’utia Ioane Brown of Lotofaga Atua was the leader for the MAU in Atua, till his last year for the MAU in Vaimoso in 1942. (Lands & Titles Court Doc. March 1952) – Info in full

On January 9, 1939, At Mandates Commission of the League of Nations, when considering the annual report of the NZ Government on Samoa, some very pertinent questions were asked such as: “Is it true that the anti-MAU movement called the Malo was as strong in numbers and influence as the organization dominated by Mr. Nelson and his son-in-law Tamasese?” and “Would it be fair to say that the MAU could be identified with the Nelson family, and the anti-MAU with the family of Malietoa?” (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

In 1939 to 1947, Hon Fonoti Mata’utia Ioane Brown of Lotofaga Atua was the leader of the Fono a Faipule of the Government of Samoa. (Fono o Faipule Proceedings 1939/1947)

In 1942-4, the export values rose from when had fallen to 228,000 pounds to an average of 352,000 pounds. In 1945 they reached the record figure of 630,000 pounds. Despite an increase in the cost of imports (offset, from the national point of view, by difficulties of supply and shipping), this was a period of substantial prosperity, from which the government, as well as the private individual, benefited. Internal revenue rose from an average of 110,000 pounds in the financial years 1939-40 to 1941-2 to 257,000 pounds in the succeeding three-year period. And as one result, the public debt, which had for so long worried both Samoan and European leaders, was wholly repaid. (Davidson Bk: Samoa mo Samoa)

In 1942, onwards a growing and audible demand for self-government, a demand by no means silenced by New Zealand paternalism. In the view of an experienced observer; it was not far removed from the formation of another Mau. By this time, however, it was known that the Prime Minister himself was about to visit the mandated territory. He was known to have a keen personal interest in its administration, of which since 1940 he had been the ministerial head; but the tremendous pressure of war issues during the ensuing years had kept his main attention elsewhere. (NZTEC: NZ Electronic Text Centre)

In 1944, The Petition for Self-Government by the Fono of Faipule leader Hon Fonoti presented directly to New Zealand Governor-General Sir Cyral Newall in June, and much more directly to the Prime Minister the Rt. Hon Mr. Peter Fraser on the 20-26th of December the same year. (Fono o Faipule Proceedings 1944)

On June 1944, NZ Governor-General Sir Cyral Newall paid his third visit to the territory, and while welcoming him, the leader of Fono o Faipule Hon Fonoti on behalf of the fono, expressed solid criticism of New Zealand policy. “The Samoans, said Hon Fonoti, had been denied even that element of self-government which had been established in Tonga and Fiji and in Eastern Samoa. The terms of the mandate have imposed on New Zealand the solemn duty of educating the Samoans to self-government and the terms of the Atlantic Charter express the same aim for the small nations of the world, concluding that he had lost confidence in the NZ trusteeship. Samoans are quite able to run their own affairs, in spite of NZ’s failure to assist.”- Info in full (Fono o Faipule Proceedings 1944: NZTEC)

On December 20 to 26, 1944, NZ Prime Minister the Rt. Hon Mr. Peter Fraser visited Samoa for a special fono to discuss matters on the spot. This visit of the Prime Minister and discussions at the special fono “proved a crucial event in NZ’s relations with the Samoans and in the evolution of NZ’s conception of trusteeship”. Demands were made by leader Fono o Faipule Hon Fonoti with a list of remits presented to the Prime Minister, most of which were detailed and aimed at progressive displacement of Europeans by Samoans in administration, included setting up of a scholarship scheme etc. but which was headed by a firm request for Self-Government in Samoa after the war, all of which eventually lead to endorsement by United Nations on 13 Dec, 1946. (Fono o Faipule Proceedings 1944)

On November 18, 1946, Western Samoa’s “Fono of All Samoa” presented a letter to Foss Shanahan, New Zealand’s Assistant Secretary for External Affairs, in which the members thanked New Zealand for its assistance, but expressed their complete opposition to the draft United Nations Trusteeship Agreement. The Fono asked for self-government, with New Zealand acting “as Protector and adviser to Samoa in the same capacity as England is to Tonga.” (1a. Davidson 1967: 166)

On December 13, 1946, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Trusteeship Agreement for Western Samoa. Its details belong to the history of self-government in Samoa. (1a. Davidson 1967: 167)

On August, 1947, the term ‘Native’ had been replaced by ‘Samoan’ in normal official usage after the New Zealand policy statement of Aug 1947. The Department of Native Affairs, for example, had been renamed Department of Samoan Affairs. But the term ‘Native’ remained in the text of many legal enactments, in the title of various offices, etc., till the Samoa Amendment Act, 1951, provided for its general replacement by ‘Samoan’. (Davidson Bk: Samoa mo Samoa)

During 1947-54, The growth in export earnings was paralleled by an increase in the participation of Samoan villagers in economic life. Samoan producers had contributed the figure was 1,999 tons of cocoa, or sixty-six per cent of the total exported. A rapidly growing banana trade was very largely reserved to Samoan growers. A great deal more money, this encouraged many Samoans in villages to begin trading on their own account. A return of June 1954 showed nearly seventy Samoans as the holders of business licences, nearly all as general storekeepers. One of these – Hon Fonoti Ioane Brown – who was an Apia merchant, had been the principal founder of the first predominantly Samoan-owned company, Samoa Traders Ltd. – was shown as operating fourteen stores, also became the most successful planters and cattlemen, his career had shown he was a man of drive and considerable shrewdness. His title belonged not to Lufilufi (the political centre of Atua, which he was to represent) but to Lotofaga Atua. (Davidson Bk: Samoa mo Samoa)

On March 10, 1948, the Samoa Amendment Act of 1947 became law. It changed the designation of Western Samoa’s principal executive officer from “Administrator” to “High Commissioner.” The “Administration of Western Samoa” became the “Government of Western Samoa.” (1a. Davidson 1967: 185)

On June 1, 1948, Western Samoa’s new flag was raised ceremonially for the first time, and was flown together with the New Zealand flag in Apia. (1a. Davidson 1967: 191)

On June 2, 1948, the High Commissioner opened the first session of the Legislative Assembly. (Davidson 1967: 190)

On March 1, 1949, Sir Guy Powles, Ph.D., was appointed as New Zealand’s High Commissioner for Western Samoa. (1a. Davidson 1967: 192)

On March 27, 1950, a Commission of Inquiry on Government Reform was appointed in Western Samoa. The members were: Tofa Tomasi, Tuala Tulo, Mata’ia Si’u, Tofilau Siaosi, Fa’amatuainu Tufilau and Namulau’ulu Siaosi. (1a. Davidson 1967: 265)

On April 1, 1950, Western Samoa’s Public Service Commission was created. (1a. Davidson 1960: 212)

On 1951-1953, Hon Fonoti had taken the novel step of formation of a Political Party. Out of this action “The Samoan Democratic Party” emerged. The founder and leader of The Samoa Democratic Party. During its first year the party claimed a membership of about three hundred and the support of a substantial proportion of the untitled people. But the election of Hon Fonoti to the Fono of Faipule late in 1951 and his return to the Legislative Assembly in 1954 gave it a place in the formal political life of the Country; and others who were associated with it have since served in Public Office. Although Fonoti was an influencial person, his party was never able to function effectively as a pressure group, it’s more important policy proposals were brought clearly before the public; even thou the Party died, its ideals have lived on in the form of demand for Universal Surfrage with Matai Candidacy, the replacement of The Fono a Faipule and The Legislative Assembly by One Body, and Personal Tax Services. (Davidson; Bk Samoa mo Samoa)

On April 1, 1954, the “District and Village Government Board Ordinance” became law in Western Samoa. (1a. Davidson 1967: 312)

On December 22, 1954, Western Samoa’s Constitutional Convention concluded its proceedings. (1a. Davidson 1967: 324)

In 1954-1957, Hon Fonoti a member of the Working Committee Constitutional Convention of the Government of Samoa announced of his wish and opinion to secure Self Government – Samoa Independence! And for a Government of Samoa be founded in God. For the office of Head of State – the present Council of State be retained and its name be changed to Fono of Ta’imua – Council of Leaders. And that the four Tamaaiaga be in that Council, and that Hon Tupua Tamasese and Hon Malietoa Tanumafili (ii) as they are at present the Head of State, but for the future that there be only one Head of State and that the Head of State be selected from within that Council (fono of Ta’imua), and that the four nominates the Head of State. If they are unable to do that then the matter should be referred to the Legislature for final action. (Fono of Samoa Proceedings: 1954/57)

In 1954-1957, Hon Fonoti a member of the Working Committee Constitutional Convention of the Government of Samoa confirmed of The Steering Committee of the Government of Samoa, and comprising 5 Samoans and 2 Europeans namely: Hon Leutele Te’o, Hon Tualaulelei, Hon Gatoloai Peseta, Hon To’omata and Va’ai Kolone, Hon H.W. Moors and Hon A.M. Gurau, be confirmed. (Fono of Samoa Proceedings)

On 1957, A new enlarged Legislative Assembly was opened with 41 Samoan and 5 European members. Afamasaga Kalapu was the Speaker. The Ministers were: Mata’afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinuu (ii), To’omata, Tualaulelei Mauri, Tuatagaloa Te’o, Fa’alavaau Galu, Eugen Paul. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

In 1954-1960, The Working Committee had been able to reach solutions on the most difficult problems of Samoan politics. In reaching decisions that were both clear and comprehensive on subjects such as the Head of State and domestic status, in its various aspects, the Working Committee Constitutional Convention had provided a firm foundation for the government of the future Samoan state. The drafting of the Constitution more important was the question of choosing a term to describe the new state. ‘Kingdom’ or ‘elective monarchy’, which would have accorded with Samoan sentiment, were inappropriate; and ‘republic’, which would have been accurate, were wholly unacceptable. Other terms that were thought of, such as ‘principality’, were rejected for one reason or another. The final decision, therefore, was in favour of the term ‘Independent State of Western Samoa’. (Davidson Bk: Samoa mo Samoa)

On October 28, 1960, Western Samoa’s Constitutional Convention completed its work. (1a. Davidson 1967: 400-401)

On January 1, 1962, Western Samoa became the first independent state in the tropical South Pacific, and also the world’s first independent “micro-state.” Malietoa Tanumafili (ii) and Tupua Tamasese Mea’ole were joint Heads of State for life. Mata’afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinuu (ii) was Western Samoa’s first Prime Minister. (1a. Davidson 1967: 408-411) Note: The Government of Samoa founded in God: Fa’avae i le Atua Samoa.

On January 1, 1962, the original historical All Samoa Fa’alupega of King Fonoti was regained, with the new addition to it “Tama and Aiga” stands for the four Tamaaaiga: – Tulouna Tumua ma Pule, Tulouna Itu’au ma Alataua, Tulouna Aiga I le Tai, ma le Va’a o Fonoti, Tulouna Tama ma latou Aiga, po’o Aiga ma latou Tama.

On April 5, 1963, Tupua Tamasese Peter Mea’ole, Joint Head of State with Malietoa Tanumafili II since Western Samoa’s independence on January 1, 1962, died of lung cancer in Western Samoa. (1a. Eustis 1979: 161)

On 1973, Hon Teoteo Asiasi’au Tiatia Sauso’o Fonoti Brown became Member of Parliament of Western Samoa for the first time. He had three terms as an M.P. to 1984. He was the fourth eldest son of Hon Fonoti Mata’utia Ioane Brown of Lalovaea and Lotofaga Atua. (J.B. Fonoti family: Sa-Fonoti)

On October 9, 1974, Hon Fonoti Mata’utia Ioane Brown of Lalovaea and Lotofaga Atua the Sa-Fonoti the King line, died of old age at Moto’otua Hospital Apia in Western Samoa. The funeral mass was held at the Catholic Church Mulivai in Apia by His Eminence Cardinal Bishop Pio. Fonoti was laid to rest and buried at his land called “Oliula” in Lotofaga Atua. (J.B. Fonoti family: Sa-Fonoti)

In 1975, Prime Minister Mata’afa Faumuina Fiame Mulinuu (ii) suddenly died. He had four terms as Prime Minister and a similar number of terms as a Chairman of the Congregational Christian Church Assembly. He was laid to rest in the family vault at Mulinuu Apia. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On March 24, 1976, Tupuola Taisi Tufuga Efi became Prime Minister of Western Samoa for the first time. (7. World Statesmen 2002b: 3)

On November 2, 1977, When the Head of State Malietoa Tanumafili (ii), invited by the Governor, paid his first official visit to American Samoa, he was given a cold reception in Manu’a. Only chiefs and orators of Ta’u met him on arrival. Head of State Malietoa Tanumafili (ii) was not presented the first cup at the kava ceremony, and the visitors speech in reply to the hosts welcome speech was cut short by the village orator. No reasons were given for the uncharacteristically rude reception, but one report said that the differences were longstanding, had originated hundreds of years ago and had a traditional basis. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On April 13, 1982, Vaai Kolone became Prime Minister of Western Samoa for the first time. (7. World Statesmen 2002b: 3)

On December 31, 1982, Tofilau Eti Alesana became Prime Minister of Western Samoa for the first time. (7. World Statesmen 2002b: 3)

On October 18, 1985, After the Japanese Government had announced its offer to triple its aid quota, Prime Minister Tofilau Eti was prompted to make the rather tactless statement that the Japanese volunteers here are superior to those of the American Peace Corps. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On December 30, 1985, Vaai Kolone became Prime Minister of Western Samoa for the second time. (7. World Statesmen 2002b: 3)

In 1990, At a plebiscite, at which 40,000 of the 75,000 people eligible to vote did vote, the majority favoured universal suffrage, but opposed a second House of Parliament. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On May 14, 1992, During discussion in Parliament of a clause in the Lands, Survey & Environment Bill, Prime Minister Tofilau Eti and Talamaivao Niko started throwing sexual accusations at each other. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On October 17, 1992, The Council of Churches (President Cardinal Pio Taofinu’u) asked the Government to review the Constitution so as to allow for the banning of any more churches or religions. The Cardinal felt that there are enough religions, all having the same God, although with the establisment of Muslims “there are now two Gods”. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

On November 23, 1998, Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi became Prime Minister of Western Samoa. Government HRPP Party to Date. (7. World Statesmen 2002b: 3)

On October 18, 2000, Referring to corruption in politics and the pre-election practice of bribing, M.P. Afamasaga Tole’afoa remarked in Parliament that getting into Parliament costs a fortune, and that, once the candidates are there, it is “Natural” to try and recover the money they had to spend to get there. He considered it to be a “Natural state of affairs” that M.P.’s would try to get their hands on on public funds if the regular remuneration packages are not sufficient. To reduce the risk of the honorable abusing public funds to serve their own purpose, he supported the Civil List Act amendment bill aimed at raising the remuneration of M.P.’s. The leader of the Opposition agreed that the problems of political corruption would always be around if the M.P.’s remuneration is not commensurate with the importance of their position. (Tom Overhoff: 2009)

In 2003, A Major Global Recognition for Fonoti of Western Samoa. The Book: The Evolution of International Human Rights; Visions seen; by Regents Professor Paul Gordon Lauren. Edition 2. (Chapter 6: P. 176) Peace and a Charter with Human Rights: “Thus, many victims in the west began to join with many others like Gandhi in India, Ho Chi Minh of Indochina, Nkrumah and Kenyatta of Africa, Carlos Romulo of the Philippines, and Fonoti of Western Samoa in regarding the right of self-determination as absolutely necessary for international peace”. (P. 207) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: In this regard, they strongly criticized a number of the early draft proposals from the colonial powers, but praised the commitment from the New Zealand that its agreement with Western Samoa would be “in effect a self-contained Bill of Rights for the inhabitants. (Regents Professor Paul Gordon Lauren: World Peace and Freedom 1945: Nobel Peace Institute and the United Nations) – Info in full

On March 1952, Fonoti Ioane Brown Quoted: “Ole Suafa Fonoti o Lotofaga Atua o le Tama a Salevalasi, Ole Fu’a maualuga e mamalu ai Salevalasi i fafo i Samoa”.

The Battle Fleets of Tagaloa Funefe'ai: Ta i le Vai and The King Fonoti: Va'a o Fonoti.


~ by Christian Brown on August 16, 2009.

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